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Conceptual Framework for the Assessment of the Degree of Dependency of Critical National Infrastructure on ICT in Nigeria

Author(s): Uche Mbanaso, Victor Kulugh, Habiba Musa and Gilbert Aimufua  |  Published date:  Nov, 2019

<strong>Abstract&nbsp;</strong> -&nbsp; Critical&nbsp; National&nbsp; Infrastructure&nbsp; (CNI)&nbsp; are&nbsp; assets that provide core functions to modern society, which failure&nbsp;&nbsp; or&nbsp;&nbsp; incapacitation&nbsp;&nbsp; can&nbsp;&nbsp; adversely&nbsp;&nbsp; affect&nbsp;&nbsp; national&nbsp;&nbsp; security, economic prosperity and wellbeing of citizens. In an evolving digital society, CNI rely heavily on Information and&nbsp; Communications&nbsp; Technology&nbsp; (ICT)&nbsp; infrastructure&nbsp; to&nbsp; improve&nbsp;&nbsp; productivity,&nbsp;&nbsp; and&nbsp;&nbsp; effectively&nbsp;&nbsp; deliver&nbsp;&nbsp; critical&nbsp;&nbsp; services&nbsp; in&nbsp; timely&nbsp; and&nbsp; cost-effective&nbsp; fashion.&nbsp; However,&nbsp; the&nbsp; underlying&nbsp; ICT&nbsp; infrastructure&nbsp; that&nbsp; drives&nbsp; CNI&nbsp; amplify&nbsp; cyber&nbsp;&nbsp; risks,&nbsp;&nbsp; threats&nbsp;&nbsp; and&nbsp;&nbsp; vulnerabilities&nbsp;&nbsp; exponentially.&nbsp;&nbsp; Consequently,&nbsp;&nbsp; a&nbsp;&nbsp; failure&nbsp;&nbsp; in&nbsp;&nbsp; ICT&nbsp;&nbsp; infrastructure&nbsp;&nbsp; has&nbsp;&nbsp; the&nbsp;&nbsp; potential to affect CNI in an unexpected manner. The risks associated with the use of ICT are dynamic, raising the need for&nbsp; continuous&nbsp; assessment&nbsp; of&nbsp; degree&nbsp; of&nbsp; ICT&nbsp; dependency.&nbsp; Presently&nbsp; however,&nbsp; there&nbsp; is&nbsp; rarely&nbsp; a&nbsp; framework&nbsp; nor&nbsp; a&nbsp; publicly&nbsp; available&nbsp; tool&nbsp; in&nbsp; Nigeria&nbsp; that&nbsp; can&nbsp; quantitatively&nbsp; gauge&nbsp; the&nbsp; degree&nbsp; of&nbsp; CNI&nbsp; dependency&nbsp; on&nbsp; ICT.&nbsp; The&nbsp; study&nbsp; addresses&nbsp; this&nbsp; gap&nbsp; by&nbsp; the&nbsp; development&nbsp; of&nbsp; a&nbsp; conceptual&nbsp; framework that can facilitate the assessment of the degree of CNI dependency on ICT. In this study, existing relevant documents on critical infrastructure, ICT frameworks and standards and critical process engineering principles were scanned,&nbsp; analysed&nbsp; and&nbsp; synthesised&nbsp; to&nbsp; conceptualise&nbsp; the&nbsp; framework,&nbsp; and&nbsp; the&nbsp; construction&nbsp; of&nbsp; the&nbsp; building&nbsp; blocks,&nbsp; metrics and indicators. The framework was tested using a hypothetical&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; discrete&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; dataset.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; The&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; outcome&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; further&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; facilitated&nbsp; the&nbsp; framing&nbsp; of&nbsp; ICT&nbsp; Dependency&nbsp; Index&nbsp; (IDI),&nbsp; a&nbsp; predefined&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; quadrant,&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; of&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; which&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; the&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; computation&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; of&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Dependency must fall within one of the quadrants.

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Characterisation of Critical Infrastructure Organisation in Nigeria

Author(s): U. M. Mbanaso, V. E. Kulugh and J. A. Makinde  |  Published date:  Dec, 2019

<span style="left:85.6px;top:318.433px;font-size:15px;font-family:serif;transform:scaleX(1.03316);"><strong>ABSTRACT:</strong> This paper presents th</span><span style="left:310.4px;top:318.433px;font-size:15px;font-family:serif;transform:scaleX(1.0557);">e characterisation of critical </span><span style="left:67.5999px;top:335.633px;font-size:15px;font-family:serif;transform:scaleX(1.0738);">infrastructures in Nigeria as an </span><span style="left:269.999px;top:335.633px;font-size:15px;font-family:serif;transform:scaleX(1.02448);">initial step towards development of </span><span style="left:67.5999px;top:353.033px;font-size:15px;font-family:serif;transform:scaleX(1.07608);">a framework for the uniform designation of an infrastructure as a </span><span style="left:67.5999px;top:370.234px;font-size:15px;font-family:serif;transform:scaleX(1.05915);">Critical National Information Infr</span><span style="left:293.399px;top:370.234px;font-size:15px;font-family:serif;transform:scaleX(1.0556);">astructure (CNII) in Nigeria. </span><span style="left:67.5999px;top:387.434px;font-size:15px;font-family:serif;transform:scaleX(1.04926);">Notably, there is no globally acceptable criteria for the designation </span><span style="left:67.5999px;top:404.635px;font-size:15px;font-family:serif;transform:scaleX(1.0331);">of an infrastructure </span><span style="left:201.799px;top:404.635px;font-size:15px;font-family:serif;transform:scaleX(1.03007);">as Critical National Infr</span><span style="left:360.199px;top:404.635px;font-size:15px;font-family:serif;transform:scaleX(1.01921);">astructure (CNI) or </span><span style="left:67.5999px;top:422.035px;font-size:15px;font-family:serif;transform:scaleX(1.00859);">CNII. However, there is a consensus that CNIs are vital for a modern </span><span style="left:67.5999px;top:439.235px;font-size:15px;font-family:serif;transform:scaleX(1.05939);">society, and drives economic growths and national prosperity. </span><span style="left:67.5999px;top:456.436px;font-size:15px;font-family:serif;transform:scaleX(0.991078);">Although there are similarities in </span><span style="left:286.398px;top:456.436px;font-size:15px;font-family:serif;transform:scaleX(1.00425);">such infrastructures worldwide, </span><span style="left:67.5999px;top:473.636px;font-size:15px;font-family:serif;transform:scaleX(1.04837);">every nation determines the value to attach to each CNI depending </span><span style="left:67.5999px;top:490.837px;font-size:15px;font-family:serif;transform:scaleX(1.02979);">on its developmental goal, priorities and the level of dependency on </span><span style="left:67.5999px;top:508.237px;font-size:15px;font-family:serif;transform:scaleX(1.08443);">such infrastructure. In Nigeria, </span><span style="left:287.999px;top:508.237px;font-size:15px;font-family:serif;transform:scaleX(1.05886);">there is no publicly available </span><span style="left:67.5999px;top:525.437px;font-size:15px;font-family:serif;transform:scaleX(1.02747);">information on the categorisation of infrastructures as CNI or CNII. </span><span style="left:67.5999px;top:542.638px;font-size:15px;font-family:serif;transform:scaleX(0.996755);">The mythological approach adopted was document scan, analysis </span><span style="left:67.5999px;top:559.838px;font-size:15px;font-family:serif;transform:scaleX(1.02939);">and synthesis of publicly available information on CNI and CNII of </span><span style="left:67.5999px;top:577.238px;font-size:15px;font-family:serif;transform:scaleX(0.978182);">some selected countries, followed by a comparative analysis. Five </span><span style="left:67.5999px;top:594.439px;font-size:15px;font-family:serif;transform:scaleX(0.986047);">countries were selected from each of the six continents based on </span><span style="left:67.5999px;top:611.639px;font-size:15px;font-family:serif;transform:scaleX(0.985442);">population size and adoption of Information and Communications </span><span style="left:67.5999px;top:628.84px;font-size:15px;font-family:serif;transform:scaleX(1.0113);">Technology (ICT). The findings revealed that about 90% of the </span><span style="left:67.5999px;top:646.24px;font-size:15px;font-family:serif;transform:scaleX(1.02245);">countries studied categorised energy, transportation, water, </span><span style="left:67.5999px;top:663.44px;font-size:15px;font-family:serif;transform:scaleX(1.04645);">communications and health as sectors of CNI. Conceptually, based </span><span style="left:67.5999px;top:680.641px;font-size:15px;font-family:serif;transform:scaleX(1.00458);">on the outcome, CNIs in Nigeria were characterised into twelve </span><span style="left:67.5999px;top:697.841px;font-size:15px;font-family:serif;transform:scaleX(1.05713);">critical sectors. This initial st</span><span style="left:266.799px;top:697.841px;font-size:15px;font-family:serif;transform:scaleX(1.05404);">udy forms the first step towards </span><span style="left:67.5999px;top:715.241px;font-size:15px;font-family:serif;transform:scaleX(1.03941);">development of a framework for the correct designation of an </span><span style="left:67.5999px;top:732.442px;font-size:15px;font-family:serif;transform:scaleX(1.00705);">infrastructure as a CNII in Nigeria as opposed to arbitrary </span><span style="left:67.5999px;top:749.642px;font-size:15px;font-family:serif;transform:scaleX(1.03372);">designation. </span>

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