Publications


The Cyberspace: Redefining A New World

Author(s): U. M. Mbanaso, PhDand E.S. Dandaura, PhD.  |  Published date:  May, 2015

<strong>Abstract:</strong> The cyberspace&nbsp; driven&nbsp; by information&nbsp; systems&nbsp; and the&nbsp; Internet&nbsp; is&nbsp; transforming&nbsp; our&nbsp; environment&nbsp; in extraordinary&nbsp; ways&nbsp; by&nbsp; enabling&nbsp; economic&nbsp; growth&nbsp; and&nbsp; providing&nbsp; new&nbsp; means&nbsp; by&nbsp; which&nbsp; people&nbsp; connect,&nbsp; interact and collaborate with one another. The continuous evolution of components of information and communications technology&nbsp; (ICT);&nbsp; advances&nbsp; in the underlying digital&nbsp; components&nbsp; (core&nbsp; electronics)and&nbsp; the&nbsp; corresponding reduction&nbsp; in&nbsp; costs suggest&nbsp; that&nbsp; the Internet is increasingly becoming more&nbsp; readily&nbsp; available&nbsp; and&nbsp; accessible worldwide.&nbsp; The&nbsp; outcome&nbsp; is&nbsp; that&nbsp; more&nbsp; and&nbsp; more&nbsp; people&nbsp; around&nbsp; the globe&nbsp; will&nbsp; ultimately&nbsp; rely&nbsp; on the effective functioning of&nbsp; the&nbsp; Internet to survive and&nbsp; prosper. This&nbsp; suggests&nbsp; an&nbsp; unremitting upsurge&nbsp; of the population&nbsp; of cyber citizens globally.Most countries no longer take these emerging trends in the virtual world casually. Aside the&nbsp; evolution of&nbsp; digital&nbsp; economy&nbsp; driven&nbsp; by the extensive&nbsp; use&nbsp; of&nbsp; information&nbsp; space&nbsp; or&nbsp; digital&nbsp; knowledge, most countries are working hard to dominate the information space. As the industrial revolution bifurcated the world, so also is the level of exploitation of the vast opportunities on cyberspace bifurcating nation states. This is simply due&nbsp; to&nbsp; the&nbsp; fact that traditional&nbsp; activities&nbsp; of&nbsp; all&nbsp; sorts&nbsp; are increasingly shifting&nbsp; to&nbsp; this&nbsp; new domain.Certainly, cyberspace&nbsp; has&nbsp; become&nbsp; a&nbsp; new focal&nbsp; point for&nbsp; innovations,&nbsp; enterprises,&nbsp; social&nbsp; networking,&nbsp; criminality and warfare.These&nbsp; factors&nbsp; are&nbsp; reshaping&nbsp; and&nbsp; redefining&nbsp; a&nbsp; new&nbsp; world.&nbsp; Most&nbsp; countries&nbsp; that&nbsp; have&nbsp; recognized cyberspace as the fifth domain, have,equally elevated their perception of the domain as an abstract virtual space to&nbsp; a&nbsp; more&nbsp; concrete&nbsp; space with&lsquo;physical boundaries&rsquo;. This&nbsp; paper&nbsp; explores&nbsp; the&nbsp; different&nbsp; levels&nbsp; at&nbsp; which cyberspace is bringing benefits and risks to mankind, and the factors responsible for the widening gap between &lsquo;developed&rsquo; and &lsquo;developing&rsquo; nations.

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The Cyberspace and Intensification of Privacy Invasion

Author(s): U. Mbanaso, PhD and E.S. Dandaura, PhD  |  Published date:  Apr, 2015

<strong>Abstract: </strong>The widespread adoption of cyberspace for exceptional socio-economic activities, especially as it is connecting populations around the globe in ways never foreseen is raising fresh security issues.What is fueling this embracement, is the pervasiveness of social media and innovative mobile computing devices.&nbsp; This has not only&nbsp; changed&nbsp; our&nbsp; ways&nbsp; of&nbsp; life,&nbsp; but&nbsp; also&nbsp; blurs&nbsp; the&nbsp; lines&nbsp; that&nbsp; define&nbsp; the&nbsp; way&nbsp; governments&nbsp; run,&nbsp; business&nbsp; are conducted&nbsp; as&nbsp; well&nbsp; as&nbsp; the&nbsp; way&nbsp; we&nbsp; use&nbsp; and&nbsp; share information. Yet,&nbsp; these new&nbsp; ways&nbsp; of&nbsp; services&nbsp; and&nbsp; interactions, are&nbsp; raising new threats&nbsp; in terms&nbsp; of privacy,&nbsp; integrity,confidentiality&nbsp; and&nbsp; trust.&nbsp; Cyberspace transactions cut across national boundaries, in many cases,without any form of existing trust relationships of any sort. Again, the&nbsp; explosion&nbsp; in&nbsp; mobile&nbsp; computing&nbsp; is&nbsp; extending&nbsp; the influence of&nbsp; social&nbsp; web;&nbsp; the&nbsp; manner in which content&nbsp; is shared and accessed is now defining a symbol of new global status,affecting and merging the realm of personal and&nbsp; business&nbsp; life. Besides&nbsp; the&nbsp; threats&nbsp; from criminal&nbsp; minded&nbsp; people&nbsp; or&nbsp; group,&nbsp; deliberate&nbsp; efforts&nbsp; by&nbsp; states&nbsp; to dominate (or show supremacy) with the potential to halt other states economically, politically or militarily, lies intensified privacy&nbsp; invasion&nbsp; that&nbsp; is&nbsp; unfamiliar to&nbsp; the&nbsp; unsuspecting&nbsp; technology&nbsp; user.This&nbsp; paper explores&nbsp; the different levels&nbsp; at&nbsp; which users&nbsp; of cyberspace&nbsp; are exposed to privacy invasion, the consequences and&nbsp; manner in which some of the risks can be mitigated even as we continue to record steady upswing of mobile computing by cyberspace users.

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A Critical Assessment of Nigeria’s Presence on the Cyberspace

Author(s): U. M. Mbanaso, G. A. Chukwudebe & E. E. Atimati  |  Published date:  Dec, 2015

<strong>Abstract</strong>&mdash;This&nbsp;&nbsp; paper&nbsp;&nbsp; presents&nbsp;&nbsp; a&nbsp;&nbsp; study&nbsp;&nbsp; of&nbsp;&nbsp; the&nbsp;&nbsp; Nigeria&rsquo;s&nbsp;&nbsp; presence&nbsp;&nbsp; in&nbsp;&nbsp; Cyberspace.&nbsp;&nbsp; The&nbsp;&nbsp; Cyberspace&nbsp;&nbsp; (Internet)&nbsp;&nbsp; is&nbsp;&nbsp; now&nbsp;&nbsp; critical&nbsp; to&nbsp; every&nbsp; nation&rsquo;s&nbsp; socio-economic,&nbsp; cultural&nbsp; and&nbsp; political&nbsp; activities.&nbsp; When&nbsp; it&nbsp; is&nbsp; disrupted&nbsp; or&nbsp; fails,&nbsp; can&nbsp; grind&nbsp; a&nbsp; nation&nbsp; to&nbsp; a&nbsp; standstill.&nbsp; On&nbsp; the&nbsp; contrary,&nbsp; its&nbsp; correct&nbsp; functioning&nbsp; and&nbsp; pliability&nbsp; is&nbsp; transforming&nbsp; modern&nbsp; society&nbsp; with&nbsp; exceptional&nbsp; pecuniary&nbsp; and&nbsp; social&nbsp; benefits.&nbsp; With&nbsp; nearly&nbsp; all&nbsp; traditional&nbsp; activities&nbsp; increasingly&nbsp; moving&nbsp; to&nbsp; the&nbsp; Internet,&nbsp; Cyberspace&nbsp; has&nbsp; become&nbsp; a&nbsp; new&nbsp; stage&nbsp; for&nbsp; innovations,&nbsp; enterprises,&nbsp; social&nbsp; networking,&nbsp; criminality&nbsp; and&nbsp; war.&nbsp; For this study, the United Nations (UN) e-governance framework was&nbsp; used,&nbsp; the&nbsp; highlights&nbsp; of&nbsp; the&nbsp; United&nbsp; Nations&nbsp; E-Government&nbsp; Survey&nbsp; report&nbsp; of&nbsp; 2014&nbsp; was&nbsp; analyzed&nbsp; to&nbsp; show&nbsp; the&nbsp; ranking&nbsp; of&nbsp; the&nbsp; world leaders, West African countries and where Nigeria stands.&nbsp; The&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Internet&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; penetration&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; growth&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; and&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; evolving&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Internet&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; infrastructure&nbsp;&nbsp; provisioning&nbsp;&nbsp; in&nbsp;&nbsp; Nigeria&nbsp;&nbsp; were&nbsp;&nbsp; reviewed&nbsp;&nbsp; and&nbsp;&nbsp; a&nbsp;&nbsp; critical&nbsp; assessment&nbsp; of&nbsp; Nigeria&rsquo;s&nbsp; presence&nbsp; on&nbsp; the&nbsp; Cyberspace&nbsp; was&nbsp; carried&nbsp; out&nbsp; using&nbsp; the&nbsp; UN&nbsp; online&nbsp; presence&nbsp; index&nbsp; methodology&nbsp; between&nbsp; the&nbsp; months&nbsp; of&nbsp; August&nbsp; and&nbsp; September&nbsp; 2015.&nbsp; The&nbsp; web&nbsp; content, interactivity, the currency of information, downloadable documents,&nbsp; etc.&nbsp; were&nbsp; used&nbsp; to&nbsp; compare&nbsp; various&nbsp; sectors&nbsp; of&nbsp; the&nbsp; Nigerian&nbsp; economy;&nbsp; all&nbsp; tiers&nbsp; of&nbsp; government,&nbsp; academia,&nbsp; and&nbsp; the&nbsp; organized&nbsp; private&nbsp; sector.&nbsp; The&nbsp; study&nbsp; revealed&nbsp; that&nbsp; the&nbsp; organized&nbsp; private&nbsp; sector&nbsp; and&nbsp; private&nbsp; educational&nbsp; institutions&nbsp; are&nbsp; doing&nbsp; better&nbsp; than&nbsp; government&nbsp; educational&nbsp; institutions&nbsp; and&nbsp; ministries.&nbsp; Based&nbsp; on&nbsp; international&nbsp; best&nbsp; practices,&nbsp; a&nbsp; list&nbsp; of&nbsp; recommended&nbsp; actions&nbsp;&nbsp; for&nbsp;&nbsp; increasing&nbsp;&nbsp; cyberspace&nbsp;&nbsp; presence&nbsp;&nbsp; and&nbsp;&nbsp; achieving&nbsp;&nbsp; e-governance&nbsp; for&nbsp; improved&nbsp; services&nbsp; and&nbsp; productivity&nbsp; in&nbsp; Nigeria&nbsp; and similar developing countries is proffered.

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The Use of Social Networking Service among Nigerian Youths between Ages16 and 25 Years

Author(s): U. M. Mbanaso, PhD; E. S. Dandaura PhD; G. N. Ezeh PhD; U. C. Iwuchukwu  |  Published date:  Dec, 2015

<strong>A</strong><strong>bstract-</strong> This&nbsp; paper&nbsp; presents&nbsp; an&nbsp; investigation&nbsp; of&nbsp; the&nbsp; use&nbsp; of&nbsp; social&nbsp; networking&nbsp; service&nbsp; among&nbsp; youths&nbsp; aged&nbsp; 16&nbsp; through&nbsp; 25&nbsp; years,&nbsp; in&nbsp; Nigeria.The&nbsp; convergence&nbsp; of&nbsp; information&nbsp; systems&nbsp; and&nbsp; networks,&nbsp; the&nbsp; Internet&nbsp; and&nbsp; mobility&nbsp; has&nbsp; brought&nbsp; about&nbsp; a&nbsp; fundamental shift on how people generate and share information. Specifically,&nbsp; social&nbsp; media&nbsp; has&nbsp; emerged&nbsp; as&nbsp; a&nbsp; powerful&nbsp; tool&nbsp; in&nbsp; a&nbsp; digitally&nbsp;&nbsp; connected&nbsp;&nbsp; world,&nbsp;&nbsp; touching&nbsp;&nbsp; every&nbsp;&nbsp; aspect&nbsp;&nbsp; of&nbsp;&nbsp; human&nbsp;&nbsp; existence.&nbsp; This&nbsp; paradigm&nbsp; swing&nbsp; cuts&nbsp; across&nbsp; people&nbsp; of&nbsp; diverse&nbsp; age&nbsp; albeit&nbsp; affects&nbsp; each&nbsp; age&nbsp; category&nbsp; differently.&nbsp; This&nbsp; work&nbsp; presents&nbsp; the&nbsp; outcome&nbsp; of&nbsp; a&nbsp; study&nbsp; conducted&nbsp; in&nbsp; select&nbsp; towns&nbsp; in&nbsp; central&nbsp; part&nbsp; of&nbsp; Nigeria&nbsp; between&nbsp; January&nbsp; and&nbsp; June&nbsp; 2015.&nbsp; The&nbsp; focus&nbsp; was&nbsp; to&nbsp; determine&nbsp; how&nbsp; youths&nbsp; (age&nbsp; 16&nbsp; through&nbsp; 25)&nbsp; use&nbsp; social&nbsp; media&nbsp; platforms&nbsp; in&nbsp; terms&nbsp; of&nbsp; the&nbsp; frequency,&nbsp; and&nbsp; purposes&nbsp; of&nbsp; social&nbsp; networking&nbsp; site&nbsp; usage.&nbsp; The&nbsp; survey&nbsp; revealed&nbsp; that,&nbsp; 99%&nbsp; of&nbsp; the&nbsp; respondents&nbsp; have&nbsp; social&nbsp; media&nbsp; accounts&nbsp; out&nbsp; of&nbsp; which&nbsp; 95.2%&nbsp; use&nbsp; smartphones&nbsp; to&nbsp; access&nbsp; various&nbsp; social&nbsp; media&nbsp; platforms.&nbsp; 46.4%&nbsp; from the respondents fall under the category of those very likely to&nbsp; use&nbsp; social&nbsp; platforms&nbsp; in&nbsp; a&nbsp; week,&nbsp; while&nbsp; 26.8%&nbsp; account&nbsp; for&nbsp; those&nbsp; who&nbsp; are&nbsp; extremely&nbsp; likely&nbsp; to&nbsp; use&nbsp; the&nbsp; social&nbsp; networking&nbsp; service&nbsp; within&nbsp; same&nbsp; time&nbsp; frame.&nbsp; Only&nbsp; 0.7%&nbsp; of&nbsp; the&nbsp; respondents&nbsp; were&nbsp; not&nbsp; likely to use social networking service within a week. Among the twelve social media platforms surveyed, Facebook ranked top as the&nbsp; most&nbsp; commonly&nbsp; used&nbsp; social&nbsp; networking&nbsp; channel&nbsp; with&nbsp; 91%,&nbsp; followed&nbsp; by&nbsp; WhatsApp&nbsp; (87%)&nbsp; and&nbsp; Tango&nbsp; ranked&nbsp; last&nbsp; at&nbsp; 1%.&nbsp; Based&nbsp; on&nbsp; the&nbsp; analysis&nbsp; of&nbsp; the&nbsp; result,&nbsp; it&nbsp; is&nbsp; highly&nbsp; likely&nbsp; that&nbsp; social&nbsp; media&nbsp; may&nbsp; have&nbsp; severe&nbsp; impact&nbsp; on&nbsp; young&nbsp; people&nbsp; who&nbsp; have&nbsp; no&nbsp; form&nbsp; of&nbsp; restrains&nbsp; with&nbsp; consequences&nbsp; of&nbsp; huge&nbsp; distractions&nbsp; and&nbsp; privacy&nbsp; intrusions.&nbsp; Conversely,&nbsp; the&nbsp; fact&nbsp; that&nbsp; social&nbsp; media&nbsp; is&nbsp; rapidly&nbsp;&nbsp; building&nbsp;&nbsp; social&nbsp;&nbsp; and&nbsp;&nbsp; communications&nbsp;&nbsp; habits&nbsp;&nbsp; into&nbsp;&nbsp; the&nbsp;&nbsp; youths&nbsp; point&nbsp; to&nbsp; its&nbsp; potential&nbsp; to&nbsp; enhance&nbsp; their&nbsp; learning&nbsp; habits&nbsp; if&nbsp; properly harnessed and formalized to aid pedagogy at secondary and tertiary levels.

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Privacy Preserving Trust Authorization Framework Using XACML

Author(s): U.M. Mbanaso, G.S. Cooper, D.W.Chadwick and Seth Proctor  |  Published date:  Mar, 2015

<span style="left:81.7px;top:261.729px;font-size:16.2407px;font-family:serif;transform:scaleX(1.09681);"><strong>Abstract</strong></span><span style="left:142.1px;top:258.87px;font-size:19.45px;font-family:serif;transform:scaleX(0.999528);"><strong>:</strong> </span><span style="left:157.5px;top:261.729px;font-size:16.2407px;font-family:serif;transform:scaleX(1.01969);">Nowadays many organisations share sensitive </span><span style="left:81.6999px;top:280.929px;font-size:16.2407px;font-family:serif;transform:scaleX(0.967413);">services through open network systems and this raises the </span><span style="left:81.6999px;top:299.628px;font-size:16.2407px;font-family:serif;transform:scaleX(0.977711);">need for an authorization framework that can interoperate </span><span style="left:81.6999px;top:318.328px;font-size:16.2407px;font-family:serif;transform:scaleX(0.994893);">even when the parties have no pre-existing relationships. </span><span style="left:81.6999px;top:336.928px;font-size:16.2407px;font-family:serif;transform:scaleX(1.03011);">Trust Negotiation is the process used to establish these first </span><span style="left:81.6999px;top:355.529px;font-size:16.2407px;font-family:serif;transform:scaleX(0.984848);">relationships, through the transfer of attributes, embedded </span><span style="left:81.6999px;top:374.228px;font-size:16.2407px;font-family:serif;transform:scaleX(1.00441);">in digital credentials, between the two parties. However, </span><span style="left:81.6999px;top:392.829px;font-size:16.2407px;font-family:serif;transform:scaleX(0.943881);">these attributes may themselves be considered sensitive and </span><span style="left:81.6999px;top:411.429px;font-size:16.2407px;font-family:serif;transform:scaleX(0.98328);">so may need protection from disclosure. In some </span><span style="left:81.6999px;top:430.129px;font-size:16.2407px;font-family:serif;transform:scaleX(1.00738);">environments, the policies that govern the protected services </span><span style="left:81.6999px;top:448.729px;font-size:16.2407px;font-family:serif;transform:scaleX(0.973817);">may also be considered sensitive and their release to </span><span style="left:81.6999px;top:467.428px;font-size:16.2407px;font-family:serif;transform:scaleX(1.03445);">arbitrary strangers may leak confidential business </span><span style="left:81.6999px;top:486.029px;font-size:16.2407px;font-family:serif;transform:scaleX(0.963327);">information. Thus, the electronic services, the policies that </span><span style="left:81.6999px;top:504.629px;font-size:16.2407px;font-family:serif;transform:scaleX(0.968055);">control access to them, and the digital credentials used to </span><span style="left:81.6999px;top:523.329px;font-size:16.2407px;font-family:serif;transform:scaleX(1.00295);">gain access may all be sensitive and require access </span><span style="left:81.6999px;top:542.028px;font-size:16.2407px;font-family:serif;transform:scaleX(1.00308);">protections. This paper describes how to unify the protection </span><span style="left:81.6999px;top:560.528px;font-size:16.2407px;font-family:serif;transform:scaleX(0.975389);">of services, sensitive credentials and policies in a </span><span style="left:81.6999px;top:579.228px;font-size:16.2407px;font-family:serif;transform:scaleX(1.00288);">synchronised trustworthy manner. We propose a trust </span><span style="left:81.6999px;top:597.927px;font-size:16.2407px;font-family:serif;transform:scaleX(1.00231);">authorization framework (TAF) that builds on the </span><span style="left:81.6999px;top:616.427px;font-size:16.2407px;font-family:serif;transform:scaleX(0.935965);">capabilities of XACML to support the bilateral exchange of </span><span style="left:81.6999px;top:635.126px;font-size:16.2407px;font-family:serif;transform:scaleX(0.987627);">policies and credentials through trust negotiation. Our </span><span style="left:81.6999px;top:653.727px;font-size:16.2407px;font-family:serif;transform:scaleX(1.01388);">framework addresses privacy and trust issues, and considers </span><span style="left:81.6999px;top:672.426px;font-size:16.2407px;font-family:serif;transform:scaleX(1.01083);">services, credentials, and authorization policies protected </span><span style="left:81.6999px;top:691.027px;font-size:16.2407px;font-family:serif;transform:scaleX(0.983318);">resources whose access is subject to credential proof and </span><span style="left:81.6999px;top:709.627px;font-size:16.2407px;font-family:serif;transform:scaleX(1.0049);">trust level validation </span>

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